These groups consisted of men who smoked combustible tobacco cigarettes group 1men who smoked e-cigarettes exclusively group 2and men who were non- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation:"12 Dysbiosis ne demek Diseases.
Public Health Consequences of E-Cigarettes. The men who smoked cigarettes had a significantly higher plaque index and probing depth than men in group 2 or group 3.
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This finding suggested poorer dental health in the men who smoked combustible tobacco cigarettes. However, limitations to the study may confound these comparisons because the men in group 1 smoked for a mean of 5.
Tatullo and colleagues conducted a clinical observational pilot study involving smokers who reported that they had switched to e-cigarettes. A small subset of subjects had carbon monoxide CO levels measured dysbiosis ne demek assess whether they were smoking during the study.
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Of the 22 dysbiosis ne demek of subjects tested, most were found to have CO levels consistent with very light combustible tobacco smoking. Smokers were divided into two groups, according to the number of years each group smoked: group 1 less than 10 years of combustible tobacco cigarette smoking and group 2 more than 10 years of combustible tobacco cigarette smoking.
Patients were subjected to oral examinations to investigate the following parameters: plaque index, bleeding index, and papillary bleeding index. A questionnaire to self-assess the variations of some parameters of general health and to self-assess the need to smoke combustible tobacco cigarettes was distributed to the subjects involved in the study.
At the end of this pilot study, it was noted that the subjects had progressive improvement in the periodontal indexes, as well as in their general health perception. This study suggests dysbiosis ne demek beneficial effect on the oral health of smokers who switch to e-cigarette use.
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Reuther and colleagues performed a pilot study investigating the effect of nicotine and non-nicotine e-cigarette aerosols on blood flow in the buccal mucosa in 10 volunteers after 5 minutes of e-cigarette use. In dysbiosis ne demek volunteers that used the nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, flow fell to the same levels as before within 30 minutes.
Finally, a pilot study by Wadia and colleagues examined the gingival health in 20 established smokers before and after substituting e-cigarettes for combustible tobacco cigarettes for 2 weeks. The primary outcome measurement of gingival inflammation was bleeding on probing.
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Levels of selected pro-inflammatory cytokines in gingival crevicular fluid, saliva, and serum samples were dysbiosis ne demek determined. There was a statistically significant increase in gingival inflammation when combustible tobacco smokers switched from smoking to e-cigarette use for 2 weeks.
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