Since that time, new data have become available, these have been incorporated into the Monograph, and taken into consideration in the present evaluation.
Exposure Data 1. Types and ethanol content of alcoholic beverages 1. Types of alcoholic beverages The predominant types of commercially produced alcoholic beverages are beer, wine and spirits. Basic ingredients for beer are malted barley, water, hops and yeast.
Studiile descriptive identific caracteristicile personale, localizarea geografic i perioadele de timp asociate cu un risc crescut sau sczut de cancer. Studiile descriptive msoar frecvena bolii n populaie si prevalena expunerii. Epidemiologia descriptiv utilizeaz urmtorii indicatori : rate de inciden sau morbiditatea prin cancer, rata mortalitii, prevalena, indicele de gravitate. Se numete nivel brut de inciden numrul real de cazuri observat n fiecare an n populaie. Astfel, numrul absolut de cancere s-a dublat la nivel mondial n perioada
Wheat may be used. Nearly all wine is produced from grapes, although wine can be also made from other fruits and berries. Spirits are frequently produced from cereals e. Main beverage types i. In addition to commercialized products, in many developing countries different types of home- or locally produced alcoholic beverages such as sorghum beer, palm wine or sugarcane spirits are consumed WHO, Home- or locally virus hpv la b?nh gi alcoholic beverages are produced through fermentation of virus oxiuros, virus hpv la b?nh gi, fruit, vegetables or parts of palm trees, by a fairly simple production process.
Alcohol content differs according to the main beverage type and may also vary by country. However, lower or higher ethanol content in alcoholic beverages is also possible.
The ethanol content in beer can range from 2. There is a trend in recent years towards higher To calculate the amount of ethanol contained in a specific drink, the amount e.
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Некоторые из наиболее красноречивых ораторов потребовали установить наказание для игнорирующих резолюцию о бойкоте.
Да, пожалуй, - слабым голосом произнесла Николь.
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Chemical composition The main components of most alcoholic beverages are ethanol and water. Services Reg. Volatile compounds include aliphatic carbonyl compounds, alcohols, monocarboxylic acids and their esters, nitrogen- and sulfur-containing compounds, hydrocarbons, terpenic compounds, and heterocyclic and aromatic compounds. Non-volatile extracts of alcoholic beverages comprise unfermented sugars, di- and tribasic carboxylic acids, colouring substances, tannic and polyphenolic substances and inorganic salts IARC, Occasionally, toxic additives, that are not permitted for use in commercial production have been identified in alcoholic beverages.
These include methanol, diethylene glycol used as sweetener and chloroacetic acid or its bromine analogue, sodium azide and salicylic acid, which are used as fungicides or bactericides Ough, Contaminants may also be present in alcoholic beverages. Contaminants are defined as substances that are not intentionally added but are present in alcoholic beverages due to production, manufacture, processing, preparation, treatment, packing, packaging, transport or holding, virus hpv la b?nh gi as a result of environmental contamination.
Contaminants and toxins found in alcoholic beverages are nitrosamines, mycotoxins, ethyl carbamate, pesticides, thermal processing contaminants, benzene, and inorganic contaminants such as lead, cadmium, arsenic, copper, chromium, inorganic anions, and virus hpv la b?nh gi IARC, In view of the potential carcinogenicity of acetaldehyde and its known toxic properties, recent studies attempted to estimate exposure to acetaldehyde from alcoholic beverages outside ethanol metabolism at known levels of alcohol exposure.
Trends in consumption of alcoholic beverages Volume, pattern and quality of consumed virus hpv la b?nh gi are included in the description of differential exposure to alcohol.
In —09, WHO conducted the Global Survey on Alcohol and Health, collecting data on alcohol consumption, alcohol-related harm and policy responses from its Member States.
Total adult per capita consumption in litres of pure alcohol is defined as the total amount of alcohol consumed per virus hpv la b?nh gi, taking into account recorded consumption i. Recorded adult per capita consumption is calculated from production, export and import data, or sales data.
Unrecorded consumption is computed from representative surveys, specific empirical investigations or expert opinion. Overall, there is a wide variation in the volume of alcohol consumed across countries. As presented in Table 1. Apart from some countries in Africa and a few countries in other parts of the world, alcohol consumption in the other regions is generally lower.
1. Exposure Data
Globally, men consume more virus hpv la b?nh gi than women. This is reflected in the differences in the number of lifetime abstainers, past year abstainers and former drinkers Table 1.
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A former drinker is a person who did not consume any alcohol during the past year. Generally, the percentage of lifetime and past year abstainers is higher in women than in men.
The prevalence of lifetime, past-year abstainers, and former drinkers are calculated from large representative surveys.
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Alcohol consumption remains low in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. Cancer in Humans 2. Description of cohort studies 2.
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Virus hpv la b?nh gi in the general population Cohort studies are classified by the country in which the study was conducted Table 2. Since the previous Virus hpv la b?nh gi Monograph IARC,data on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of cancer have been published from several cohorts, including updates of cohorts described previously Bongaerts et al.
Studies in special populations This group of studies is characterized by the assumption that the study subjects have a pattern of consumption of alcoholic beverages that is different from that of the general population, e. Because of the availability of national registries of populations, inpatients and cancer, these studies were largely performed in Scandinavian countries.
The estimation of risk in these individuals is not based upon a comparison of exposed and unexposed subjects within the cohort, but with the expected rates of cancer in the general population. Virus hpv la b?nh gi et al. Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract 2.
Cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx It was concluded in virus hpv la b?nh gi previous IARC Monograph IARC, that consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the oral cavity and pharynx, and that the risk increases in a dose-dependent manner.
Significant increases in risk were found with increasing amount of alcohol consumption in all studies Freedman et al. In one case—control study conducted in Taiwan, China among patients attending a hospital clinic Yen et al. Friborg et al.
In most studies an approximate threefold increased risk was found at relatively high levels of intake i. There is increasing evidence from recent cohort studies that risk may already be increased at more moderate intake, particularly in women Freedman et al. Consistent with many earlier studies, risks were found to be elevated virus hpv la b?nh gi recent former drinkers, most likely due to ill health directly related to the cancer or its precursors.
Studies have been hampered with low numbers of women at the highest levels of exposure. From a large-scale cohort study, Weikert et al. One study in Taiwan, China found no association with alcohol consumption among non-smoking ever-drinkers for cancer of the oral cavity Yen et al.
The joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on the risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx is described in Section 2. Cancer of the larynx It was concluded in the previous IARC Monograph IARC, virus hpv la b?nh gi consumption of alcoholic beverages is causally related to cancer of the larynx, and that the risk increases in a dose-dependent manner. In one further case—control study in Uruguay De Stefani et al. This study provided no information on individual exposures or results virus hpv la b?nh gi for potential confounders b Intensity and duration Previous studies consistently showed that increasing alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of cancer of the larynx IARC, Bagnardi et al.
This is consistent with the 1.
Compatible with this, Freedman et al. Among men, the dose—response relationship is slightly weaker Freedman et al.
In a large case—control study in Italy there was clear evidence of a dose—response relationship virus hpv la b?nh gi men and women combined Garavello et al.
Altieri et al. Data published recently largely supports this view Garavello et al. More recent studies that have examined the joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on virus hpv la b?nh gi risk of cancer of the larynx are described in Section 2. The increased risk is largely restricted to squamous cell carcinoma, with little or no association for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus. A case—control study in Uruguay De Stefani et al.
Consistently, a 3—8 fold increased risk with high intakes of alcohol has been reported in more recent studies Lee et al. In several studies an increased risk has been found with duration of drinking Lee et al.
Risk is similar when alcohol consumption is based on measures of either baseline or lifetime alcohol consumption Fan et al. In a meta-analysis of 5 case—control studies Rehm et al.
Similar results pancreatic cancer usmle obtained from a cohort study Ozasa et al. Risks are virus hpv la b?nh gi among more former drinkers, who most likely cease drinking due to ill health directly related to the cancer or its precursors Rehm et al.
This is supported by data from more recent studies Lee et al. Although the risk associated with a high alcohol intake among men with a flushing response was higher than among those with cancer cervical nic 3 flushing response, the differences were not significant.
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Details of the association oxiuros como se cura alcohol consumption according to genetic variants in alcohol-metabolizing genes related to the flushing response are presented in Section 2.
Pandeya et al. Recent studies that have examined the joint effect of alcohol consumption and tobacco smoking on the risk of cancer of the oesophagus are described in Section 2.
Obiectul Microbiologiei Omul triete ntr-un mediu populat de o imensitate de microorganisme, fiind el nui purttorul unora dintre ele. Dimensiunile lor reduse virus hpv la b?nh gi fcut ca ele s scape mult timp observaiei, dar rezultatele activitii lor au fost sesizate din totdeauna. Astfel, omul a selectat empiric microorganisme pe care le-a folosit n scopuri practice ca, de pild, dospirea pinii, fermentaia vinului, a berii etc. Rolul microorganismelor n etiologia bolilor infecioase a fost descoperit doar n a doua jumtate a secolului trecut, cu toate c de-a lungul timpului muli cercettori au sugerat aceast posibilitate.
Cancers of the upper aerodigestive tract combined a Overview of cohort and case—control studies In the previous IARC Monograph IARC, the association between consumption of alcoholic beverages and risk of cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract combined was not evaluated. Since then, three cohort studies Thygesen et al.